Antipsychotic medicines are mainly used to manage psychosis. The term “psychosis” describes conditions that impact the mind, and during which some absence of contact with reality has been incurred, often comprising delusions (untrue, fixed beliefs) or hallucinations (listening or seeing things that are not actually there). It can be a symptom of a physical condition like drug abuse or a mental disorder like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or extremely severe depression (also termed “psychotic depression”).
Antipsychotic medications are frequently used in combination with different medications to treat dementia, delirium, and mental health conditions, comprising:
- Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Eating disorders
- Severe depression
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
- Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Antipsychotic medicines do not heal these conditions. They are used to aid relieve symptoms and enhance the quality of life.
Action Of Antipsychotics
Commonly speaking, antipsychotic therapies operate by obstructing a particular dopamine receptor subtype, known as D2 receptor. Earlier antipsychotics, termed traditional antipsychotics, block D2 receptor and promote positive symptoms. Unhappily, such conventional antipsychotics even obstruct D2 receptors within regions external to the mesolimbic pathways. These can cause negative symptoms to worsen that are connected with the ailment. Conventional antipsychotic drugs comprise chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine.
Antipsychotics of the second generation, commonly termed the atypical antipsychotics, obstruct D2 receptors along with a particular subtype of the serotonin receptor, known as a 5HT2A receptor. The combined action at 5HT2A and D2 receptors are believed to treat positive as well as negative symptoms. Popular atypical antipsychotics presently prevalent in Canada comprise clozapine, quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone.
As with other medications, antipsychotics carry side effects. The side effects from obstructing the D2 receptor may comprise tremors, muscle spasms, inner restlessness, sexual dysfunction, besides, in specific instances, tardive dyskinesia, an ailment that leads to repetitive, involuntary, useless movements. Side effects linked to atypical antipsychotics consist of diabetes, weight gain, and also lipid disorders. These side effects more commonly occur with olanzapine and clozapine.
Antipsychotic Effects Of CBD
Laboratory rodents and human studies have shown that CBD possesses antipsychotic effects. Different mechanisms of action have been linked to CBD effects.
CBD induces a rise in levels of anandamide that could attenuate the release of GABA by ventral pallidum neurons, reviving this system’s normal function within psychotic patients. CBD can even raise adult neurogenesis within mice which impact has been displayed to be based upon the CB1 receptors. CBD can generate various other effects, which could also contribute to its antipsychotic qualities, like interaction with TRPV1 and 5HT1A receptors and anti-inflammatory or Neuroprotective effects. The phytocannabinoid CBD can function as an agonist of the serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1A), though the function of 5-HT1A- based neurotransmission for schizophrenia is uncertain, aripiprazole, the atypical antipsychotic, works as this receptor partial agonist, an impact that could, along with its activity on 5-HT2A and D2 receptors, cause the therapeutic impact of this medicine.
CBD may also stimulate Transient Receptor Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors that are exhibited in different brain areas linked to psychosis, like the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. As CBD also comprises a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and Neuroprotective molecule, these effects possibly contribute to its antipsychotic action.
CBD seems to contain zero psychotomimetic potential and reveals antipsychotic effects in animal models ( rodents as well as monkeys).
Researchers indicate that the antipsychotic nature of CBD is linked to elevated anandamide concentrations. Experts hold that a dysfunctional endocannabinoid system appears to cause schizophrenia, while anandamide is supposed to include protective effects by achieving homeostasis to neurotransmitter imbalance.
It’s believed that the antipsychotic properties of CBD are cast by the blocking of FAAH, causing inhibition of anandamide degradation.
It’s also been mentioned that as CBD attaches to gamma receptors that could better glucose metabolism and inflammatory/immune disturbances in schizophrenic patients.
This fact about CBD and schizophrenia is really interesting!
One of the primary negative symptoms of schizophrenia comprises social withdrawal. Various studies suggest that CBD has revealed to limit social withdrawal.
Actually, the majority of studies performed on animal models inform that CBD lowered or reversed induced changed social behavior.
One study revealed that the antipsychotic properties of CBD resembled that of the popular antipsychotic drug, amisulpride.
However, CBD showed a much superior side-effect profile as against amisulpride. For instance, CBD did not result in prolactin rise, weight acquisition, or extrapyramidal symptoms like restlessness, slow movements, rigidity, and irregular jerky movements.
Conclusion On CBD As An Antipsychotic
While research into the potential of CBD as an antipsychotic is at the stage of infancy, the promise definitely exists! The antipsychotic potential of CBD has ignited the interest of various expert researchers and could furnish a significantly positive change to the manner schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions are treated.